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The leap from single chain to cross chain...

中本聪沙龙 2020-1-8 10:36

 The leap from single chain to cross chain, the epoch-making change of blockchain industry

"Impossible Triangle" in the era of single chain

There are three key points of blockchain: efficiency, security and decentralization. However, with the technology of single chain, only two out of three can be done. Although developers try to increase the overall efficiency, security and decentralization of public chain by increasing block capacity, DAG, state channel and fragmentation technology, so far, no project has broken the "Impossible Triangle" of blockchain. One of the core problems to be solved by blockchain technology is to improve transaction efficiency, but compared with the traditional centralized settlement system, this improvement has not been achieved.

The Advent of Cross Chain Era

  Some project developers try to use other technologies to realize the comprehensive upgrade of public chain; among them, the idea of Directed Acyclic Graph and Sharding technology have made some      progress, but after the in-depth research of developers, it still could not solve the dilemma of blockchain, and cross chain was born to solve such crux of the industry.

The significance of the birth of cross chain

Cross-chain is an implementation of Interoperability, which refers to the interaction process between two or more independent blockchains. The primary meaning of cross chain is easy to understand. It is not only the automatic interaction of the third risk between assets in the chain, but also called Acoin Swap. Cross chain is not only the free flow of information and value, it is also the way to upgrade the industry in an all-round way.

Classification of cross chain mechanism

Notary Schemes

Exampleinterledger agreement

Implementation method: the two public chains are connected by the decentralized and trusted notaries (also known as verifiers). The notaries create fund custody for both parties. When the transaction consensus is reached, the transaction is automatically concluded. Because the mechanism of the notaries mode is relatively simple, in theory, this mode can be used in any structure of distributed ledger network.

Sidechain&Pegged Mechanism

ExampleBTC Relay

Implementation method: in order to settle DAPP in Ethereum network with BTC, Ethereum and Consensys team started and promoted BTC relay project. BTC relay project did not progress smoothly. The reason for low participation in the project is that block submitter (called relayer) needs to pay a lot of gas fees when submitting BTC block. However, BTC relay project is still the pioneer of side chain anchoring mechanism, which can bridge the gap between BitCoin and any smart contract public chain in its ideal state.

 

Relay Mechanism

Exemplary ProjectCosmos Polkadot

Implementation method: in short, the relay mechanism can be considered as the upgraded version of the side chain anchoring mechanism. The main difference between the two is that the intermediate chain under the side chain mechanism needs to submit and verify data, while the intermediate chain of the relay mechanism does not submit and verify data. Different public chains, projects and exchanges are called Zones in Cosmos cross chain mechanism. The process of reading and verifying each other through cosmos hub is relay mechanism.

Hash Lock Mechanism

Exemplary ProjectLightning Network

Implementation method: the hash locking mechanism is the earliest cross chain method, and its structure is relatively simple and easy to implement. However, at present, the mechanism is only applicable to the public chain with the same password primitive, and it doesn’t support quite well for multi pass smart contracts, so its development is relatively stagnant.

RPOS (Random Proof of Stake)

Exemplary ProjectWhiteCoin

Implementation method: the consensus mechanism of random multi asset equity pledge adopts the cross chain mode of relay + distributed private key control. Through the innovative multi tunnel blockchain communication protocol (MTBCP), WhiteCoin Axis, Wallet, smart contract and other blockchain technical achievements and innovations, the value interconnection between blockchains is realized; multi tunnel blockchain communication protocol (MTBCP) is the original communication protocol for point-to-point information transmission between blockchains created by WhiteCoin.

 

The cross chain mode of hybrid mechanism is the most difficult level in technology development, but the benefits of hybrid mechanism are also obvious. It combines the advantages of two cross chain mechanisms to further perfect the technology and community ecological construction, which is also the trend of future development of cross chain mechanism.

Cross chain mechanism plays an important role in the field of blockchain. Without cross chain technology, various types of blockchain platforms are isolated ecological islands at this stage, which will greatly limit the value transfer ability and application scope of blockchain platforms. Although major public chains have begun to try cross chain technology, cross chain technology is still in its infancy, far from real application.

  At present, the application of cross chain projects is similar to most of the underlying public chains, mainly divided into transaction market, social networking, games and quiz. In this regard, the WhiteCoin   community is particularly outstanding. They expect to develop 100 + DAPPs in the past two years, including one-click currency issuing, social DAPP, cloud storage DAPP, game DAPP and others.

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